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電泳漆分析實驗中英對照版

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1.???????????????? Analytical Tests?

分析實驗 Three tests mus t be run at least once each shift to determine the chemical composition of the electrocoat tank. These tests determine: 為確保電泳槽的化學組份,每班比需對下列三項試驗最少檢測一次。 ?Percentage of Solids (N.V) in the tank, 槽液的固體份百分含量(N.V), ?pH of the tank, and 槽液的pH值 the conductivity of? the tank. 槽液的電導率 The results of these tests provide data to make day-to-day decisions regarding optimum tank control. 這些實驗結果為每日控制槽液使其處于最佳狀態提供數據。 At least once each week, a gallon sample of electrocoat bath (hand-dipped) should be taken from the tank and sent to the PPG Lab in Cleveland where these same tests and many more will be run. This check is necessary so that malfunctioning instruments in the field do not go undetected. 每周至少一次從電泳槽中?。ㄊ秩。┮患觼鲭娪静垡簶悠匪椭罰PG(天津)涂料有限公司實驗室試驗。這項測試是必需的,以確保工廠的儀器是在正常的工作而不是在沒有檢查的情況下進行的。

Electrocoat Solids (Non-Volatile)

?????????? ??電泳槽固體份(不揮發份) The term solids is used to indicate the weight percent of dry resin and pigment remaining after electrocoat paint is heated at 105° C (221° F) for 3 hours. Thus, if 100 grams of electrocoat paint is heated at 105C for 3 hours and weighs 20 grams upon removal, the solids would equal 20/100 g., or .20 or 20%. 固體分是指在電泳漆在105°C(221°F)是加熱三小時后剩余的干樹脂及顏料的百分含量。因此,將100克電泳漆在105C使加熱三小時,如果剩余物為20克,則固體份相當于20/100或0.20或20%。 A solids "reading" permits the operator to know how much paint (i.e., resin and pigment) is in the electrocoat tank. As the paint is plated out on the job, solids are removed from the tank. Solids, will, therefore decrease. The solids level should be maintained at 20 to 22%. The necessary amount of pigment and resin to be added to the tank depends upon the number of jobs run through the tank. A tank running 70 jobs per hour (JPH) for 16 hours a day will use approximately 1920 gallons of resin and 320 gallons of pigment. Normal tank additions are approximately 1 part pigment to 8 parts resin. Individual products vary.? Low solids tend to produce a lower film thickness. Higher solids, of course, result in a heavier film. The ideal solids percentage for most electrocoat materials is 20.5%. 固體份“讀數”是讓操作者知到電泳槽中有多少漆(樹脂和顏料)。當漆泳涂到工件上時,固體份從槽中帶出,因此,固體份下降。固體份應保持在 20—22%之間,需補加的樹脂和顏料漿的數量決定于通過電泳槽的工件數。每小時通過70個工件(JPH),每天工作16小時,槽子每天大約需使用1920加侖的樹脂和320加侖的顏料,正常槽的補加量約為1份顏料對8份樹脂,但要隨各槽的情況不同而有所不同。低固體份易于產生較低的膜厚;當然,高固體份會導致較高的膜厚。對于大多數電泳系統來說,理想的固體份是20.5%。 Equipment 儀器: The following equipment for testing solids is required: 測定固體份需用下列儀器: ?57mm x 18 mm disposable aluminum weighing dishes 57mm x 18 mm 一次性使用的鋁質稱量碟; ?Balance capable of weighing to within 0.1 mg. 精確度為0.1mg的天平; ?Forced-air Convection Oven 強制空氣對流的烘箱; Procedure 操作規程: ?Weigh the dish. 鋁碟稱重 ?Add 1.0 grams of sample and re-weigh. 加1.0克試樣于盤中,稱重 ?Perform steps (a.) and (b.) three times. 完成步驟1和2三次(即同時稱取三個并列試樣) ?Bake all three samples at 1050 C for 3 hours. 將三個試樣在105C烘干三小時 ?Remove, cool, and re-weigh the three samples. 取出,冷卻,對三個試樣重新稱重。 Calculations ?計算: Solids % = [(weight of baked sample - weight of dish) ? (weight of wet sample - weight of dish) ]X 100 ????????????????? (烘干后碟與樣品重-碟重) 固體份%=——————————————————————     ?。ǖc濕樣品重-碟重)

Panels and Panel Ratings

????? 試板及試板評價

Panels of various types are coated in the PPG Lab with paint obtained from individual production electrocoat tank weekly samples. These panels confirm the properties of the tank and show where possible problems may arise. Usually, a weekly sample is retained until a new sample is received. PPG實驗室每周分別從各個生產電泳槽獲得漆樣,并用此漆樣泳涂不同類型的鋼板,這些樣板代表了槽液的性能并預測可能發生的問題。每一試樣保存到下一新試樣收到為止。 "A" Appearance or Show Panel.? This panel is a smooth steel panel coated at normal agitation for 2 minutes at voltage needed to give 1.2 mil film build with power-off entry. Ramp time is 15-20 seconds. "Normal" agitation assumes an apex depth in a cylindrical coating tube of approximately one inch. Bath temperature is 83 to 95°F for electrocoat samples depending on the tank.? The show panel film and appearance is determined and recorded. Appearance ratings range between 10 (a perfect panel) and 0 (very poor). A show panel with rating of 7 or higher is considered acceptable. "A"--外觀樣板:樣板為正常攪拌下不帶電入槽時使漆膜干膜厚度達到1.2mil(30um)的電壓下泳涂2分鐘的平滑鋼,升壓時間為15~20秒,“正?!睌嚢柘抵笖嚢璧撞烤鄨A柱形槽底1寸左右。依據各電泳槽槽液的具體情況槽液溫度控制在85~95°F(28.31~35°C)之間,對樣板膜厚及外觀進行測定,記錄。外觀評價等級為10(最佳)至0(極差)之間,評價等級為7或更高的樣板為可接受的。 "C"? Crater? This is a 1 to 10 rating with 10 being best.? This rates the relative number of craters found on 3 (4"x12") panels, and indicates crater contamination of the bath.? These panels consist of smooth and rough steel and are rated for both shallow and fisheye craters.? One fisheye crater on three panels will result in a 5 rating where it may take 10 shallow craters to give a 5 rating.? A low rating should be checked for the number and type of crater as it may indicate oil contamination in the tank. "C"--縮孔:1~10級,10為最好。這是評價在3塊樣板(4x12)上發現縮孔的相應數目,它表明槽液中含有縮孔污染物。這些樣板有平滑鋼板和粗糙鋼板,用以評價淺坑和魚眼縮孔。3塊樣板上有一個魚眼縮孔將為5級,而存在10個淺坑也為5級。等級低時應檢查縮孔的數目和類型,因為這可能表示槽液中存在油污染源。 "L" Panel (No agitation)? (1 to 10 rating)? This panel has the bottom two inches bent to a 90 degree ("L" shape). It is placed in a bath at tank temperature, and no agitation for three minutes.? During this time any dirt in the paint will settle on the horizontal surface.? Voltage is then applied for 1 minute such that 1.0 mil coating is deposited.? After baking, a rating of 1 to 10 is given to the horizontal surface with 6 being acceptable. This panel is done to determine whether or not the tank has proper filtration. The "L" rating is a relative rating and is therefore not as important as the "H" rating. “L”板(無攪拌):(1~10級)。將樣板在距樣板底部2英寸處折成90°C(“L”型),將其在槽液溫度下放入電泳槽中,停止攪拌3分鐘此時涂料中的任何灰塵都會沉降在水平表面上,然后泳涂1分鐘使漆膜厚度達1.0mil(25um)。烘干后,按1~10等級評價水平面,6級為可接受的。從此樣板可以判斷槽子有無適當的過濾,“L”板的評價是相對的評價,因此不如“H”板重要。 Rough Steel? One panel with a profilometer reading of approximately 60 micro-inches is coated at normal agitation. This test determines the ability of the paint to coat a rough substrate. 粗糙鋼板:取一粗糙度讀數近60微英寸的樣板在正常攪拌下進行泳涂,這個實驗用以評價漆對粗糙底材的泳涂性能。 "H" Horizontal Panel With Agitation (1 to 10)? This panel is similar to the "L" panel and is coated at tank temperature, with agitation for two minutes. A voltage is applied which will achieve 1.0 mil coating.? This panel is a laboratory representation of the horizontal surfaces of the production unit and is therefore extremely important.? A 10 rating is highly desirable and below 7 is unacceptable. "H"--水平樣板(有攪拌,1~10級):此樣板與"L"樣板相似,是在槽液溫度,有攪拌的情況下泳涂2分鐘。使用的涂裝電壓要能保證漆膜厚度達1.0mil(25um)。這種樣板是生產廠工作水平面狀況在實驗室在實驗室的再現,因此非常重要。10級為最好,低于7級則為不合格。 "THW" Throw Panel. This panel is actually coated as a set of two (4"x18") phosphated panels which are assembled face to face with a 3/8" space between them.? This space is achieved by the use of a slotted rubber strip down each side of the panels.? Only the bottom of the assembly is open for paint and current.? A voltage of 275 volts is applied at 83° F. for two minutes with minimal ramp time.? The panels coat on the outside but the interior coating normally will only coat partially up on the inside of the panels.? The length of the coating distance is measured in inches and recorded.? A throw less than 12" is unacceptable. ?????????????????????? “THW”—泳透力板:此樣板實際上使用兩塊(4”X18”)面對面放置,間距為 ?????????????????????? 3/8英寸的磷化板經電泳而成。間距是通過在板的兩側安置有槽的橡膠支板 ?????????????????????? 來實現的,樣板底部不封閉。在83° F(28.3C)&275V及 升壓時間極短的條??????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? 下電泳兩分鐘。樣板的外部能夠泳上電泳漆,而內部只能部分的泳上電泳漆 ?????????????????????? 測量并記錄鋼板內側泳涂上電泳漆的部分的長度并記錄。泳透力低于12英 ??????????????????? ???寸(30cm)是不能接受的。 ?? ???4.3 Measurement of Dry Film Thickness ?干膜厚度測量 Use the following procedure to determine the thickness of dry paint films. Instrument operation may very slightly because different manufacturers or models are involved, but basic procedure should remain standard. 按下列生產規程來測定干膜厚度。因為包括不同的生產廠家及型號,儀器的操作可能略有不同,但其基本規程應保持標準。 The instrument should be calibrated before each use. If the instrument is to be ed over long time periods, it should be calibrated every 10 minutes. 每次使用儀器前應校準,如果儀器需長時間使用,應每10分鐘校準一次。 The instrument should be calibrated in an area free of vibration or stray magnetic fields such as power lines, generators, or welding equipment. 儀器校準應在無振動區域以及無發電機,焊接設備等干擾磁場的區域進行。 Film meters should be calibrated on a shim of lower film build than that of the test film and on a shim of higher film build than that of the test film. Thus, a suspected film of 0.65 mils should be checked with the meter calibrated on an 0.50 mil shim and on a 1.00 mil shim; and a suspected film of 1.20 mils should be checked with the meter calibrated on a 1.00 mil shim and on a 1.40 mil shim. The low-point calibration should be made with the zero adjustment and the high point with the calibrate adjustment.? Any readings attempted on film builds outside the calibrated range will not be accurate. 一套標準板為固定在磷化鋼板上的5塊聚酯薄膜墊片,對每套標準板來說額外提供一非固定的墊片(0.50mil)及一平整的磷化板。每一個聚酯膜墊片的厚度均已在Cleveland的PPG電泳涂裝實驗室中用精確校準過程的層無塑料顯示器(Permascope)檢測過。 If film builds involving several ranges are to be measured, the meter must be recalibrated for each range.   如果所測膜厚包含幾個不同范圍,應對每一范圍進行校準。 Films of thickness less than that of the 0.50 mil shim can be checked by zeroing on the phosphated panel and calibrating on the 0.50 mil shim. 如果膜厚低于0.5mil,則在磷化板上測零,并在0.5mil墊片上校準。 The mylar shims will, in time, wear and become inaccurate. 隨時間推移,聚酯薄膜墊片將因磨損而變得不準確,PPG會根據要求更換其磨損的標準板。 Production substrates may yield substantially different results than those measured on standard phosphated panels. Particular care must be taken for galvanized, zincrometal, Ultrasmooth, and other zinc-coated substrates. Error due to substrate variation can be determined by calibrating on a 0.50 mil shim over the standard phosphated panel and checking the thickness of the same 0.50 mil shim over the production substrate. Any difference between the two shim readings can be used to more accurately determine film builds on production substrates by adding or subtracting the difference to or from the paint film build readings. 客戶現場底材與標準磷化板上的測量結果往往有明顯的生產差別。對鍍鋅鐵板,含鋅金屬,超平其它鍍鋅低材應特別注意。通常在標準磷化板上對0.5mil(12.7um)墊片的厚度可求出有底材變化而引起的誤差。任何兩個墊片測厚讀數可用來精確測量工件底材上的涂膜厚度,即在涂層厚度讀數上加上或減去這個差值。

4.4 Soak and Coat Compatibility Test

??????相容性試驗

MATERIALS 材料: One Gallon Electrocoat Bath per Sample 每種試樣的一加侖電泳槽液; Test Sample: Oil - As is, 4 grams. With greases, add 4 grams of Butyl Cellosolve to 4 grams of the test grease. 試驗樣品:如為油,4g.如為潤滑脂,向4g 試驗用潤滑脂中加4g丁基溶纖劑; Unbaked Solids Tin 未烘烤的白鐵罐; Coating Setup for Coating (4" x 12") Panels ??????????????????????? 泳涂(4x12)樣板的泳涂裝置 PROCEDURE 規程: Use one test sample for each gallon of electrocoat bath. 從電泳槽中取1加侖試樣; Coat one "Before" control phosphated (4" x 12") panel at 1.0 - 1.2 mil film build to determine that paint is crater-free.? Approximate temperature and voltage for fresh, ultrafiltered electrocoat bath is 250v at 83o F. Bake for 20 minutes at 360o F. 泳涂一事先挑好的磷化板(4*12),使涂層厚度為1.0~1.2mil,確定漆無縮孔。作為此實驗的標準樣板。對新鮮的,經過超濾的電泳漆槽來說,槽液溫度和泳涂電壓約為83°F(28.3°),250伏。在360°F(182°C)烘20分鐘。 For Oil Sample: Add 4 grams to one gallon of crater-free electrocoat bath. 對于油樣品,加4g油于一加侖無縮孔電泳漆槽液中; For Grease Sample: Solubilize 4 grams of test grease with 4 grams Butyl Cellosolve in unbaked solids tin and add solution to one gallon crater-free electrocoat bath. 對于含潤滑脂樣品:在白鐵罐中用4g丁基溶纖劑溶解4g潤滑脂,然后將此溶液加到一加侖無縮孔的電泳漆槽液中。 Agitate contaminated paint for a minimum of 4 hours 對有油脂污染的槽液進行攪拌,至少4小時. After minimum four hours agitation, coat one phosphated (4"x12") panel. 在進行最少4小時攪拌后,泳涂(4x12)磷化板: Secure an oven and bake for 20 minutes at 360 F. 檢查烘箱,在360°F(182.2°C)下烘板20分鐘: Rate baked panels for craters and submit panels. 對烘干后的樣板進行縮孔等級評價并提交樣板: Insure oven used is not contaminated before release for other lab use. 在交付其他實驗室使用前確保烘箱未受污染. Crater Ratings 縮孔等級 10????????????? No Craters 10分???????? 無縮孔 9?????????????? 1-2 Craters 9 分????????? 1-2個縮孔 8?????????????? 3-5 Craters ?????????????????????? 8 分????????? 3-5個縮孔 7?????????????? 6-10 Craters?? 7 分????????? 6-10個縮孔 6????????????? 11-15 Craters ?????????????????????? 6 分???????? 11-15個縮孔 ???? ?????????????????5?????????????? 16-25 Craters ????????????????????? 5 分?????????? 16-25個縮孔 Fail?????????? 26+ Craters 失敗???????? 26個以上縮孔?

4.5 Sandwich Compatibility Test

????????? 夾層相容性試驗

Materials: 材料: Disposable Pipettes 一次性滴管 Micrometer Adjustable Draw Gauge 可調測微壓延儀 Paper Clips (Small) 支夾(?。? One-Gallon, Crater-Free electrocoat bath (Sample) 一加侖無縮孔電泳漆槽液(試樣) Phosphated Panels: 1 Panels = One Sandwich 磷化板:1板=1層 (4" x 6") (Panel A: 5 mil oil bead draw = 10 Drops) a???? (4*6)(板A:5mil厚油層=10滴) ?b???? (4"*12) C???? 檢查用板(4*12) (4" x 6") (Panel B: 10 mil oil bead draw = 15 drops) d???? (4*6)(板B:10mil厚油層=15滴) e???? (4*12) Procedure 規程: Lay panel "A" (4" x 12") on flat surface and apply 10 drops of oil with pipette to center of panel. 將板”A” (4*12)水平放置,用移液管在板中央滴10滴油;; Set both draw gauge micrometers for 5 mil, position gauge over oil, and pull an even draw to bottom of panel. 將兩臺測微壓延儀的厚度調到5mil,將儀器至于油1上,平穩地拉直板底部; Place "A" panel (4" x 6"), sharp burr edge down, on bottom half of (4" x 12") so that cut edge of (4" x 6") barely covers all oil. 將A板(4*6)毛邊向下平放在(4*12)板的下半部,一時(4*6)板剛好覆蓋所有的油; Secure two panels together with paper clip on each side. 每邊用紙夾加上,確保兩塊板貼在一起; Coat panel in crater-free electrocoat bath at 83 F, 250V to achieve a 1.25 mil coating. 在83°F(28.3°C),250伏用無縮孔的電泳漆泳板,使涂層厚度為1.25mil. Coat Control (4" x 12") in same paint at 1.25 mil. ??????????????????????????????????? 在同一漆液中泳涂檢驗用板(4*12),厚度為? ???????????????????????????????????? 1.25mil. Reset draw gauge for 10 mil and repeat steps 1 through 5 for panel "B" with one exception: use 15 drops of oil. 重新設置測微壓延儀使在B板上形成10mil厚油膜,重復步驟1~5,唯一不同即滴15滴油; Place coated panels flat on a rack with protective spacer panels placed between sandwich panels. 將泳涂好的樣板平放在支架上,將一保護性墊片放在夾層板之間; Secure oven and bake panels at 360o F for 20 minutes. 檢查烘箱,將板在360°F(182.2°C)烘干20分鐘; Rate baked panels for craters caused by spewn oil. 對烘過的板進行因滲油而引起的縮孔等級評價; Insure oven used is not contaminated before release for other lab use. 要確保烘箱未受污染,才能交付其他實驗室使用。 Crater Ratings 縮孔等級 10??????????????? No Craters 10???????? 無縮孔 9??????????????????? 1-2 Craters ??????????? ????????????9????????? 1-2個縮孔 8??????????????????? 3-5 Craters ?8?????????? 3-5個縮孔 7??????????????????? 6-10 Craters?? 7?????????? 6-10個縮孔 6??????????????????? 11-15 Craters 6??????????????????? 11-15個縮孔 5??????? ???????16-25Craters 5??????? ???????16-25個縮孔 ??????? ???????????????Fail???????? 26+Craters ???????????? ?????????失敗????? ???26個以上縮孔  
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